pessimistic perspective

  • can one still believe/consider that our present civilisation – a civilisation tending to become, for the first time in Human’s History, a unique and global one – is really moving in such a “desirable direction”?

  • may we consider our actual societies sufficiently aware of the main – local, regional and global – problems they should frontally facing and urgently solving?

  • can we assume our’s – today tending – global culture enough strengthened and structured to be capable of resolving present common global threatens end challenges?

  • will we have enough collective wisdom – knowledge, intelligence, mutual understanding, sharing capacity, &c. – to restrain global development into the limits of growth of our finite planet, to cpositively and efficiently to global warming process, to manage sustainably water resources, to come back to – or to develop new – renewable energy technologies, &c.?

From a classic – and quite a simplistic – perspective, Man’s History can be approached as a process successively (alternatively) determined (lead) by different societies geographically confined («civilisations») that develop through cycles of birth, growth, ageing and death, similar to people’s lives.


wheel of time

eternal return


ages of Man (golden, silver, bronze, iron, chaos)

The Roman poet Ovid (1st century BC – 1st century AD) tells a similar myth of Four Ages in Book 1.89–150 of the Metamorphoses. His account is similar to Hesiod’s, with the exception that he omits the Heroic Age. Ovid emphasizes the justice and peace that defined the Golden Age. He adds that in this age, men did not yet know the art of navigation and therefore did not explore the larger world, no man had knowledge of any arts but pre agriculture. In the Silver Age, Jupiter introduces the seasons and men consequentially learn the art of agriculture and architecture. In the Bronze Age, Ovid writes, men were prone to warfare, but not impiety. Finally, in the Iron Age, men demarcate nations with boundaries; they learn the arts of navigation and mining; they are warlike, greedy and impious. Truth, modesty and loyalty are nowhere to be found.


as a single